Where is the pre Qin bronze cast tin

In November 2018 09, 08:20 source: Science Daily
Original title: where to cast tin bronze in pre Qin Dynasty

Intern reporter Lu Chengkuan

Recently, the State Administration of cultural heritage, the Supreme People's court held in China court Museum cultural transfer transfer activities, the State Administration of cultural heritage will be 6 pieces of bronze handed over public security organs confiscated allocated to the court as China Museum permanent collection. The bronze caused concern again.

As everyone knows, bronze is an alloy of copper and tin. In the production of bronze, tin material is an indispensable resource. However, today, archaeologists have found only the copper mining sites in the Central Plains region, but have not yet found the tin mining site.

"Where the use of bronze smelting in pre Qin period, the Central Plains region of tin ore come from? It is a sticky metallurgical problem in archaeological research." Professor Li Yanxiang of University of Science and Technology Beijing Institute of science and technology history told technology daily reporter.

The "Central Plains for tin theory references, logical argument has been questioned

In order to explore the pre Qin tin material actually comes from where, many scholars focused on the local, they think the tin material with the Central Plains is the bronze smelting materials. Japanese Amano Shimotonosuke and Chinese archaeologist Shi Zhangru have used literature for tin ores in the central plains.

Amano Shimotonosuke in Henan, Anyang (the location) as the center, according to the differences between Anyang and the Central Plains region of the straight line distance is divided into different regions, regional scope of historical literature in pre Qin period, the Central Plains region of Copper drawing on the corresponding records of tin in. Shi Zhangru also used the same method, but the selection range is larger, at the same time he thinks the linear distance more than 500 kilometers, the transportation is a problem, so that all possible sources of copper and tin in the north shore of the Yellow River, far to Jinnan etc..

At the beginning of 1980s, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences researcher Wen wide further advocating "Central Plains for tin theory", he believes that the main ore are located in the territory of modern Chinese Shang and Western Zhou Dynasty, some scholars advocate tin material outside. He sought to demonstrate the existence of many tin core region through the Shang and Zhou bronze inscriptions of ancient literature and published a series of articles.

In this regard, archaeologist Tong Enzheng refuted from the angle of logic, argument. Tong Enzheng think, on the one hand, the article mainly refers to the smell of wide historical literature after the Han Dynasty, the literature can not prove that tin has been exploited in the Shang Dynasty; on the other hand, the Central Plains have used to prove the historical interpretation by tin, found that more than half indicating tin mine in the south, 1/10 in the Yanshan Liaoning area indicating tin mine. The addition of tin or origin has nothing to do, or did not indicate the origin.

In 1987, Jin Zhengyao Chinese religions of the World Academy of Social Sciences researcher had said tin questioned the central plains. He said that after the new Chinese established departments have organized geological survey work, the Central Plains region. The results show that the Henan area and no tin, tin many ancient literature records seem to be. At the same time, if there is no tin tin material is the Central Plains region, the Shang Dynasty bronze mass required for sure from other regions; on the other hand, even if the Central Plains region has proven new deposits in the Shang Dynasty, it may not even have mining, mining, also can not be excluded the possibility of tin material from other parts of the input.

"South south tin smelting sites" lack of evidence

If the Central Plains region of the tin smelting bronze material from other areas, then what area may be the supply? Archaeologist Li Ji, the history of geology expert Xia Xiangrong to pre Qin bronze material from the southern point of view. Li Ji believes that the "material about Yinxu bronze from the south, the Yellow River area of Wuxi mine, this is already the investigation of the facts. So the recent supply only the south". Xia Xiangrong pointed out that the Central Plains became the bronze industry due to its center was the political center, rather than have bronze resources, especially tin resources. The mass production of bronze will be imported from the south, a large number of copper tin resources.

Li Yanxiang appears in the southern region is probably the source of tin material by the Central Plains region of Hunan and Jiangxi two bronze smelting, is a recent large tin deposit from the lower reaches of the Yangtze River in the Central Plains area. The Shang Dynasty southward expansion, in addition to copper, more important is to get tin. Because the Central Plains have copper, such as the. The bronze inscription "gold Daoxi", it points to the south. But to scientifically demonstrated the Central Plains tin from the south, it is still very difficult." Li Yanxiang said.

He believes that if you want to prove that the Central Plains region of the tin smelting bronze material from the south, first need to find direct mining and smelting sites of tin. However, the development of the history of the South tin too serious, and may not have produced in the local tin smelting, but in the form of tin ore to transport, so in the local left smelting evidence. "These years, we did not find the smelting sites in the south, while the southern mining site for many have been destroyed." Li Yanxiang said.

The tin material may be from more than one area

The researchers find that the Central Plains, the tin smelting bronze material in May from the south, north area may also supply the tin material. Nanjing Museum associate research librarian Tian Jianhua believes that the Central Plains input Yanshan Liaoning region lead material, the copper material at the same time, also entered the tin material Yan Liao area.

She found that the lead isotope data unearthed two years post period of bronze in areas of Zhengzhou, Zhengzhou lead isotope two years post period a large number of bronze is very characteristic. According to the lead isotope data of existing geological data and metal mines, indicating this is a feature of the lead isotope places of origin in the Yanshan Liaoning area. The lead isotope data according to the type of alloy (both bronze and bronze) to judge, this area is the lead material origin, is also the origin of the copper material.

It is noteworthy that the region not only copper, lead is rich in resources, but there is no lack of tin resources, such as the huanggangliang - Haobu high tin polymetallic metallogenic belt of Yangtze River is known to the north with the largest tin.

Li Yanxiang also believes that this area may be a source of tin material used by the Central Plains bronze smelting. Because in the southern tip of Greater Khingan Range Chifeng area of distribution of the size of more than 200 tin. "Although the mining and smelting sites of tin is not found in the south, but we found the 5 tin polymetallic ore mining sites in western Liaoning native. These sites are relatively large, there are hundreds of thousands of mining stone left in the area, the equivalent of the Central Plains of the late Shang dynasty." Li Yanxiang said.

He speculated that the early Shang Dynasty Central Plains tin may come from the south, in addition to the late Shang Dynasty tin from the south, there are likely to come from the southern tip of Greater Khingan Range.

At present, the source of tin material used in smelting bronze is still not conclusive, this Public opinions are divergent., also become the next research target. "We are planning to carry out research on tin isotopes, hoping to use the technology to the Central Plains of the isotope tin tin actually comes from where." Li Yanxiang said. (Lu Chengkuan)

(commissioning editor Wang Shaoshao and He Yingchun)

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